Reports / Study and Business Tours / Australian Study Tour 2006

Study Tour 2006

Visit to Australia

Dr J De Kock and Mr J Diekmann for the Protein Research Foundation
Prof A Agenbag from the Department of Agronomy, Stellenbosch University


Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank:

  • The Protein Research Foundation, for providing the financial means which enabled them to undertake this study tour to Australia, and
  • the staff at the Head Office of the Protein Research Foundation, whose efficient administrative arrangements ensured a well-organised visit. The travel and accommodation bookings which were scheduled very efficiently by Ms M van der Walt of the PRF Head Office, ensured that the visit went smoothly.
Background information
Australia South Africa
Population 20,264,082 (Jul 2006 est) 44, 187,637 (Jul 2006 est)
Area total 7,686,850 sq km 1,299,912 sq km
Land Use
Arable land 6,15% 12,1%
Permanent crops 0,04% 0,79%
Other 93,81% 87,11%
Irrigated land 25,450 sq km (2003) 14,980 sq km (2003)
GDP composition by sector
Agriculture 3,8% 2,6%
Industry 26,2% 30,3%
Services 70% 67,1%
Labour force composition by sector
Agriculture 3,6% 30%
Industry 21,2% 25%
Services 75,2% 45%
Source. CIA WORLD FACTBOOK, 2007 (www.cia.gov)

Aim of study tour

  1. To become familiarised with Australian research programmes on canola, lupins, fababeans and other protein crops that may be relevant to South African conditions, and to source information on breeding programmes, production techniques and the utilisation of these crops.
  2. To create networks to ensure the South African oil- and proteinseed industries future access to the best genetic material and the most recent developments in production techniques available in Australia.

Introduction and report outlay

Although Australia at the time of the visit experienced the worst drought in its history, and field trials and commercial fields visited were not particularly impressive, research programmes and networking between all sectors of the various industries were found to be outstanding with an effective utilisation of both research capacity and funding.

This report details the most important information gleaned, which is summarised under the headings:

  • General information on institutions visited
  • Crop information
  • Biofuels
  • Legumes used as animal feed
  • Technical advice

  1. General information on institutions visited


    Department of Agriculture Western Australia

    This department is amenable to suggestions for memoranda of understanding for the testing of new varieties or lines of all relevant crops, and would welcome written proposals from South Africa.

    Crop rotations are considered to be the key to sustainable production and research in this field is highly prioritised.

    Competition for funding is quite intense, and the government will generally only fund research considered to be of national importance which is not directly beneficial to a specific company or industry. At this stage there is some speculation that the Department of Agriculture Western Australia may, in future, fall under the universities.

    Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), University of Western Australia

    CLIMA is a research alliance between the University of Western Australia, CSIRO, Department of Agriculture Western Australia and Murdoch University, which combines research expertise with the view to enhanced research efficiency and also generates income for research from a large number of funding sources. CLIMA had an income in excess of A$ 5 million in 2005 and is currently involved in 37 projects. CLIMA's mandate is to address the problems and priorities identified by the Western Australian legume industries and to create value for these industries and the wider community. This is achieved through strategic scientific research and development based on problems experienced in practice, focused on grain and annual pasture legumes.

    CLIMA has built a network of international relationships with standing agreements for research cooperation and the exchange of germplasm with 15 countries as well as specific project-based linkages with many other countries. Networking and collaboration with CLIMA could enrich the South African research community.

    Murenski Institute of Agriculture (Northam) and producers in Toodyay area

    Both the canola cultivar trials and field crops visited were not very impressive due to the very dry conditions experienced during the winter. Producers focused on cash cropping only by rotating canola with wheat, barley and lupins. Only TT canola cultivars are used, although farmers are looking forward to the release of hybrid cultivars. Yields obtained with canola are on average not more than 50% of that obtained with wheat, although yield varies significantly from one season to the next.

    Wild radish, which to an increased extent gained herbicide resistance, is considered to be the biggest problem and dictates the crop rotations. Ryegrass is currently not considered to be a significant problem, as it is very effectively controlled by Treflan applications at time of seeding in the rotation system.

    Oilseeds WA and Pulses WA

    The objectives and strategies of these organisations are essentially identical, in that they endeavour to bring the different sectors across the entire value chain (researchers, breeders, seed companies, seed producers, suppliers of chemicals and machinery, producers, grain handlers, transporters, crushers, processors, packagers, retailers, consumers, and so forth) together, in order to collect information on research projects, production techniques, products and economics of different crops, and to identify problems and possible opportunities that should be addressed. They also establish national and international linkages and set up industry standards. Information is disseminated to relevant sectors mainly by means of the published media and forums, demonstrations, workshops, symposia and expositions. Both organisations are affiliated with the Australian Oilseeds Federation and funding is obtained from membership fees, sponsors as well as registration fees for workshops, demonstrations, and the like. It could be of great value to the Protein Research Foundation if it maintains contact with these organisations, as their objectives and strategies are allied to those of the Canola/Lupin Working Group.

    Grains Innovation Park, Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria

    Prof David McNeill is responsible for the National Agronomical Programme which is focused on research not of direct benefit to a specific company or farmers' group. The development of agronomical packages for new cultivars is, for example, an important component of these programmes. Such information may be obtained from the department's website, or by contacting Prof McNeill personally.


  2. Crop information

    1. Canola

      Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Perth

      Australia currently produces approximately 1 000 000 to 1 500 000 tons of canola per annum, of which ± 500 000 ton is crushed locally with the balance being exported to Asian countries as whole grain.

      Although yields obtained with canola are generally not more than 50 to 55% of that obtained with wheat, the current price is almost double that of wheat, which makes canola production profitable even without taking the beneficial effects on follow-up wheat crops into account.

      Although breeding of new cultivars is done by private companies, the Department of Agriculture Western Australia conducts cultivar testing and develops gene traits adapted to specific problems, such as blackleg resistance, tolerance to biotic stress conditions, and also to achieve higher yields and oil content. Research on genetically modified organisms (GMO) is effectively on hold due to a five-year moratorium imposed by state governments.

      All cultivars can be divided into the following groups:

      • Conventional
      • Triazine Tolerant (TT types)
      • Imidazolinone Tolerant (IT or Clearfield types)
      • Imidazolinone Tolerant (IT or Clearfield types)

      Attention is also paid to hybrid cultivars, which on average yield 10 to 15% more than conventional types, while conventional types on the other hand produce higher yields than TT and IT types if no herbicide resistant weeds are present. High oleic, low linolenic (HOLL) varieties have been bred, and are grown for use in the fast- food industry, while so called industrial types, mostly Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), are tested for use in applications such as biodiesel, plastics, lubricants, lacquers and detergents.

      Factors, other than cultivar, with most significant effect on yield, are blackleg disease and planting date. Early plantings deliver highest yields and oil content, although planting in dry soil is not recommended. Early plantings may yield as much as 45% oil, but negative correlations between yield and protein content are generally found. In high-rainfall areas with 460 to 600mm per annum, the 21st of June is regarded as last date to sow, while in medium- (330 to 460mm p.a) and low-rainfall areas (<330mm p.a), the 1st of June and the 7th May respectively are regarded as the last date to sow.

      Insect pests such as wire worms, diamond-back moths and aphids also cause problems. Slugs could at times create problems on heavier soil and in higher rainfall years, but their occurrence is very difficult to predict.

      All plantings are done with minimum tillage, using knife openers to a depth of 15cm, as well as press wheels. Row spacing is important for trash clearance, but yield could decline by up to 2% for every 2,5cm increase in row width above 17,5cm, especially as wider row widths did not improve moisture conservation or weed control.

      Seed which does not perform according to expectations, is rightfully considered to be the most expensive seed. The Department of Agriculture advises producers to sow quality-assured canola seed each season, or at the very least, every second season. Canola holds the ability to cross-pollinate with neighbouring plants with up to 30% of its flowers. The longer the period seed is retained on-farm, the more out-crossing occurs, with genetic segregation producing aberrant plants. These plants can differ in grain quality, maturity and seed size, with an associated decreased seedling vigour in the main population of canola plants.

      As with other crops, the quality of the harvest is of the utmost importance. The price of canola seed is based on an oil content of 42% and premiums and discounts may vary from year to year. Canola tendered for delivery is required to be free from any uncharacteristic odours, insect infestation in the stored product, and contaminants nominated to be commercially unacceptable.

      The standards applicable to individual loads are:
      Oil 42% basis
      Moisture 8% maximum
      Test weight 62kg/hl minimum
      Impurities 3% maximum
      Broken or split 7% maximum
      Defective-
      Including damaged,
      Sprouted, and
      Green seed
      Total 10% maximum
      3% maximum
      5% maximum
      2% maximum
      Genetic modification Non-GM (adventitious presence of up to 0,9% of GM Events approved)

      CSIRO and Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), University of Western Australia

      Research is focused on cropping systems, with special attention paid to nitrogen fertilization. N-fertilizer applications are split into equal applications at planting (35%), thirty days after planting (35%) and early flowering (30%). Soil nitrogen content is not taken into account, because the deep, infertile sandy soils are not considered to contain much nitrogen.

      Attention is also paid to germplasm enrichment to characterise cultivars and identify those characteristics that would be beneficial for specific environments, in order to advise private companies for breeding purposes. Special attention is given to early maturing cultivars.

      Struan Research Centre, Primary Industries Southern Australia, Naracoorte

      Yields as high as 4,5 to 5,0 t/ha are often obtained under rain-fed conditions in this area which holds high potential for canola production, due to the deep, fertile, black clayish soil with subsurface soilwater, often as shallow as five meters, and a long rainy season with cool conditions. Research done on canola is part of the national canola breeding and cultivar evaluation programmes. Special attention is given to characteristics associated with differences in herbicide tolerance, higher protein content in canola (because oil content is already 40 to 45%), blackleg resistance, and the resistance of diamond-back moths to pesticides.

      All cultivars are rated according to their degree of blackleg resistance on a scale from 1 (no resistance) to 9 (excellent resistance). Cultivars with a resistance rating of below 7 is not recommended for production. Rating is done according to either the percentage plant survival (Canola Association of Australia) or to survival and level of stem canker infections on surviving plants (Department of Agriculture Western Australia). Because blackleg is such a major problem, and much work has been done in breeding programmes to improve resistance, Australian cultivars have the highest resistance to blackleg worldwide.

      South Africa is in the fortunate position to reap the benefits of the Australian breeding programmes, as the cultivars presently grown in South Africa originate from Australia. As it is a well-known fact that the black leg pathogen can break down resistance over time, frequent tests should be conducted to ensure that resistance to blackleg is still in situ in the locally grown cultivars.

      Grains Innovation Park (GIP), Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria

      This institute is certainly the most important centre with regard to canola breeding in Australia. Dr Wayne Burton of GIP is national leader of the canola breeding programme and will be the contact person when agreements to obtain and test promising lines in South Africa are entered into. Such agreements are already in place between Australia and Argentina. The canola breeding programme comprises of several breeding streams, like TT canola, conventional canola, Clearfield canola, bio-diesel and the juncea canola (Brassica juncea). A number of private companies also have their own breeding programmes, such as the breeding of hybrid varieties, although these are not yet available commercially. Each breeding stream has its own leader and may be located at different institutions and even in different states. All material tested and field experiments conducted in different states of Australia are however coordinated by Dr Burton (GIP) and his team.

    2. Lupins

      Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Perth

      Lupins are annually grown on 700 000 to 800 000 hectares of land in Western Australia, with an annual production of 900 000 to 1 200 000 tons, of which approximately 80% is exported as grain.

      Of the cultivated species, sweet narrow-leafed lupins are the most widespread with close to 98% of all lupins planted being L. angustifolius. This species requires non-alkaline, deep, sandy soil and an average annual rainfall in excess of 400mm. The successful production of this species is, however, very much dependent on soil texture. On heavy and medium textured soil, yield potential is between 50 to 100% of the potential for winter cereals (2,0 t/ha), but on deep loamy or deep white sand, yield potential may be 15 to 20% higher than that of cereals (1,4 and 0,4 t/ha respectively). At present almost all research on and production of L. albus in Western Australia have come to a standstill due to its susceptibility to and the occurrence of anthracnose disease. Research on a new anthracnose-tolerant (less sensitive) L. albus cultivar Andromeda, however still proceeds. The only problem is that this cultivar requires a slightly longer growth period of one week than that of Kiev Mutant, which is regarded as the standard. Small areas of less than 1 000 ha are annually planted on the more fertile loamy soil in areas with more than 450mm rainfall per annum.

      Breeding programmes focus on L. angustifolius with anthracnose-resistant cultivars, with Mandelup currently regarded as the best. A number of DNA-markers for anthracnose and phomopsis-resistance have been identified and established in conventional breeding programmes.

      There is renewed research interest in L. luteus because of its very high protein content (>40%), although production problems due to its sensitivity to aphids need to be resolved, before production of the species will become popular.

      The Department of Agriculture Western Australia is also looking at alternative uses for lupins such as:

      • Dehulled lupins (protein >50%) for aquaculture
      • Human consumption as milk, ice-cream, yoghurt, etc.
      • Health products (reduces blood pressure, appetite suppressants and to test for allergies)

      Although some attention is given to L. mutabilis, this research is at a very early stage and no cultivars have been released yet.

      CSIRO and Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), University of Western Australia

      Research projects at the CSIRO (Perth) are studying correlations between characteristics of lupin types and climatic conditions at their centre of origin, so as to advise breeders which lines or cultivars should be crossed in order to obtain specific characteristics.

      Extensive breeding programmes on L. mutabilis are conducted at CLIMA. Lines and breeding material with high-yield and high-protein potential have been identified, and are currently tested under greenhouse conditions only. Research has developed techniques to transfer beneficial characteristics by means of biotechnology, which may help to transfer anthracnose resistance to L. albus. This aspect should be pursued further, as it may be of great importance for sustainable L. albus production in South Africa and researchers from CLIMA have indicated a willingness to be of assistance.

    3. Fababeans

      Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Perth

      Approximately 6 000 hectares of fababeans are planted annually in Western Australia for the export market. In WA fababeans are often called 'failure beans' because of very unreliable yields as a result of very specific requirements for growth and susceptibility to the chocolate spot disease. It is best adapted to medium- and high-rainfall areas and to fertile, sandy loam or heavier soils with a pH (CaCl2) = 6.0, where it shows yield potentials of up to 2,5 t/ha. At this stage fababeans are not considered to be an important crop for WA.

      CSIRO and Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), University of Western Australia

      Research is conducted on the reasons for the discoloration of seed to be exported and which is intended for human consumption. Cultivars with seeds of medium size such as Ascot, Fiesta, etc. are used in the research. Results indicate that discoloration is caused by conditions experienced during growth, such as rainfall, nutrition and diseases, as well as post-harvest or storage conditions, such as moisture levels of seed, storage temperature, light intensity and oxygen concentration.

      University of Adelaide and Waite Plant Research Centre

      Australia produces 250 000 to 300 000 tons of fababeans annually on approximately 200 000 ha, of which 80% is exported for human consumption to Asia, Egypt, Morocco and other countries. Only downgraded fababeans are used for animal feed.

      Yields vary between 1,5 to as high as 5,0 tons per hectare in a limited number of high potential areas, but require a rainfall of not less than 400mm per annum. Except for their N-fixing effect, fababeans may also cause higher yields in follow-up cereals due to a reduction of soil nematode infestations as fababeans do not host the Pratelenchus nematode.

      A very comprehensive fababean breeding programme is conducted and research facilities at Waite Plant Research Centre are really impressive. More than 300 lines are tested during the F2-F4 stages, 50 are tested in the elite trials, while 10 to 15 of the most promising lines are included in the national cultivar trials every year, before being considered for release as new cultivars. Unfortunately this final testing stage is not repeated for more than one year with the result that one very dry or very wet year may have a significant effect on the cultivars released. The breeding programme is focused on resistance to chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) and ascochyta blight (Ascochyta fabae). Good progress has been made with regard to both diseases while several very promising lines also show large differences with regard to their response to water stress. New cultivars Nura and Farah show resistance to both diseases. Some of the lines are so-called 'tannin-free' and accordingly are of great importance as feed for pigs, horses and poultry. This breeding programme, which is mainly funded by the Grain Research Development Cooperation, also includes material from ICARDA and is therefore the gateway to fababean production in the world. Dr Jeff Paull is in charge of the National Australian Fababreeding Programme and can be contacted for more information and to establish collaboration to ensure that breeding material becomes available for testing in South Africa prior to its release as a cultivar.

    4. Chickpeas, Indian mustard and other new crops

      Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Perth

      Pigeon peas are cultivated on 3 000 ha and exported for human consumption, but production is hampered due to ascochyta blight disease. Although it is suitable for production in a wide range of environments, the plant will flower, but will only set pods when average daily temperatures in excess of 15°C are experienced. For this reason, it is mainly grown in the northern regions of WA. Yields of less than 1,0 t/ha can be expected in most years in medium- to high-rainfall areas.

      Although not many hectares are planted to field pea, it is the most widely adapted pulse crop in WA, being suited to a wide range of fine and medium textured soils, and to both medium- and low-rainfall environments. Field pea has unique farming system advantages because it can be sown later than most of the other annual crops. This allows weeds to germinate, with adequate time left for control either by mechanical means or non-selective herbicides before sowing. This reduced reliance on selective herbicides provides a very useful tool in the battle against herbicide resistant weeds.

      Adaptation trials are conducted with Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) in marginal areas, but convincing results have yet to be attained, because yields produced have not been superior to those of the early-maturing conventional canola varieties.

      CSIRO and Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), University of Western Australia

      Research is conducted on a large number of oilseed species such as Indian mustard, linola, linseed, crambe (Crambe abyssinica, Abyssinian mustard) and camelina (Camelina sattiva, False flax).

      Results of research on linseed show some promise. The greatest advantage of linseed production is the large variety of herbicides that can be used to combat herbicide resistance and its low fertilizer requirements. Flax is not currently of interest, because the price of fibre is too low for flax production to be an economical option.

      Indian mustard is at this stage also not an option, because yields obtained exceed those of conventional canola only in very low-potential areas and oilcake from Indian mustard is not suitable for use as animal feed. Intensive attention is, however, currently paid to this aspect in the breeding programme. Indian mustard can be used as a slow-releasing organic 'fertilizer' and soil ameliorant on very infertile sandy soils. Weed control of especially wild radish may also be a problem. Indian mustard can be used as a fumigator to reduce some soil-borne diseases and nematode infestations. Further research still needs to be conducted, however.

      Grains Innovation Park, Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria

      The majority of research conducted on, and breeding of, juncea canola is either done at, or coordinated from this institution. The aim is to develop juncea canola cultivars which hold qualities similar to those of B.napus, while maintaining the heat and drought tolerance of B.juncea (Indian mustard), and cultivate these in areas where the potential for conventional canola does not justify production. Because these areas are mostly inland and very remote, the juncea canola could be utilised in the production of biodiesel, either on-farm or at plants set up by groups of farmers for local consumption, while the oilcake could serve to boost animal production in these dry areas.

      The national pulse breeding program is also coordinated from this institution.

  3. Biofuels

    Department of Agriculture Western Australia

    Although this department is not yet involved in biodiesel production, except from re-used cooking oil, small-scale canola oil pressing units with a capacity of 150 liters per 24 hours are for sale at about A$ 4 000 and are used for on-farm production of biodiesel by a few farmers. These small units are however not very effective because the oil content in the oilcake is often more than 10%. The possibility of producing ethanol from wheat (unit with capacity of 400 000 tons of wheat), as well as from biomass, eucalyptus and even biodiesel, is currently being explored.

    Oilseeds Western Australia

    A feasibility study done by Oilseeds WA indicates that the biofuels 'environment' is changing rapidly, although production of biodiesel from canola does not appear to be economically feasible, considering the world price of canola at A$ 405/t compared to the off-road price of mineral diesel at around A$ 1,0 per litre. New technology and efficiency, along with changing market factors such as the world fossil-oil price, feedstock price and taxation arrangements will determine the economic scenario of biodiesel production. Biodiesel proponents are urged to do their calculations very diligently and carefully detail all input costs and by-product income and use the opportunity cost of canola in their decision-making. Large plants (150 million litres per year) could for example produce biodiesel at a lower cost compared to small plants of say <1 million litres per year.

    South Australia Research and Development Institute, Adelaide

    A programme to evaluate and develop new crops as sources for biodiesel production recently commenced. The main objectives of this programme are:

    • Selection and breeding of varieties of different crops tailored to biodiesel production for cultivation in areas or soils where the production of foodcrops is not economically viable. For this reason the focus is on B. juncea with good yield and oil content (Juncea canola), which is drought resistant and where oil production could be increased with low input. The use of molecular techniques to improve oil quality is investigated.
    • Development of agronomical packages to enhance adaptation.
    • Economic and environmental evaluation of new varieties in farming systems.
    • Other potential sources such as single cell micro-algae that can be used for biodiesel production.

    Biofuel research is not currently funded by government, although large companies such as BP are contemplating the issue. Australia is at this stage considering both bio-ethanol and biodiesel production, with economic feasibility being the deciding factor. At this stage producers are encouraged to sell their produce to large manufacturers to ensure that quality is maintained, rather than producing biofuel in small on-farm units.

    Dr Kevin Williams is the current program leader of this research and may be contacted for more information on biofuel research in Australia. See the attached pamphlet on SARDI Biofuels Research Programme.

  4. Legumes used as animal feed



    Visit by Dr Jos de Kock and Joe Diekmann to:
    Greg Hargreave – Baiada Poultry Pty Limited
    Todd Middlebrook – Weston Animal Nutrition in Sydney

    A total of ± 109kg of meat is consumed per person in Australia annually, as opposed to the South African consumption of ± 40kg of meat per person.

    Figure 1

    Breakdown of Australian meat consumption per annum

    Pie chart showing breakdown of Australian meat consumption per annum

    Australia produces approximately 9 million broilers per week compared to the 14 million broilers produced per week in South Africa. The slaughter age at Baiada Poultry is:

    • 32 days, 1,4kg for females (South Africa, 35 days, 1,75kg)
    • 42 days, 2,3kg for females
    • 49 days, 3,2kg for males

    Ninety percent of the production is fresh birds. Skin colour is white.

    The major feed ingredients are wheat, barley or sorghum, depending on the availability and proximity of the production areas, as transport is a major cost.

    Only downgraded fababeans are used for animal feed and then only when available at the right price. Fababeans are grown for export for human consumption to countries in Asia and the Middle East. Only second-grade fababeans which are not suitable for human consumption are used by the feed industry. Price is a major factor.

    Up to 20% of fababeans can be used in broiler rations. Fababeans are not recommended for breeder rations, due to black spot and other fungus diseases that could cause a drop in hatchability.

    Australian livestock owners utilise more than 10 million tons of stock feed annually. In 2004 / 2005 stock feed used by industry were as follows:

    Dairy 27.2%
    Poultry 27.1%
    Beef feedlot 24,6%
    Pig 16,4%
    Leisure and Hobby 4,1%
    Aquaculture 0,6%

    Figure 2

    2004/2005 stock feed used by industry

    Graph depicting stock feed used by industry during 2004/2005

    An approximate breakdown of the usage of crop products in livestock is as follows:

    Grains (Mainly sorghum, wheat and barley) 55%
    Roughage / Additives 21%
    Oilseeds 8%
    By-products 6%
    Protein meals 5%
    Pulses 5%

    The main sources of protein are canola, cottonseed, lupin, sunflower, soya and pulses (mainly field peas and chickpeas).

    Australian agriculture and livestock production are heavily dependent on exports for continued sustainability, and food safety must remain the number one priority in order to maintain their 'Clean and Green' image.

  5. Technical advice

    Technical advice is mainly provided by private consultants. These consultants could be generalists who advise on general farming aspects, although the majority are specialists who obtain information by attending symposia, demonstrations, field days, international visits, and via the internet. This information, as well as personal expertise, is applied to design technological packages. We, for example, spoke to a consultant from Grenache Nominees Pty Ltd who offer an independent soil and leaf analysis and interpretation service. They specialise in soil fertility management by using soil and plant analysis data to develop and evaluate the efficiency of fertilization programmmes. Grenache are of the opinion that their success could largely be attributed to personal and on-farm consultancy. Although producers are required to pay charges in excess of R1 500 per visit, they are willing to pay for the information provided – and use it – because it is unbiased (advice from private companies is biased) and expert advice. Producers also form their own research groups to do on-farm research and may even appoint technical personnel such as agronomists and soil scientists. The Australian agricultural advisory system is undoubtedly very efficient – not because they have access to better information, but because the information is available to the producers as 'ready to use' packages. As producers are expected to pay for information, only information considered to be essential is purchased.

  6. Conclusions and recommendations

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented as a separate document.

Personal contact details

Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Perth

Dr Kedar Adhikari, Plant Breeder, Crop Research
(kadhikari@agric.wa.gov.au)

Dr Mohammad Amjad, Senior Research Officer, Oilseeds and Biofuels Productivity Centre for Cropping Systems
(mamjad@agric.wa.gov.au)

Mr Jeff Boersma, Molecular Geneticist, Crop Improvement Institute
(jboersma@agric.wa.gov.au)

Me Sofia Sipsas, Research Officer, Plant Industries
(ssipsas@agric.wa.gov.au)

Dr Mark Sweetingham, Manager, Lupin Research & Development, Crop Research
(msweeting@agric.wa.gov.au)

Dr Jeff Thomas, Research Officer Plant Pathology
(gthomas@agric.wa.gov.au)

Mr Graham Walton, Senior Research Officer, Crop Improvement Institute
(gwalton@agric.wa.gov.au)

Dr Peter White, Senior Research Officer, Crop Improvement Institute
(pwhite@agric.wa.gov.au)

Mr H. Yang, Molecular Geneticist, Crop Improvement Institute
(hyang@agric.wa.gov.au)

CSIRO

Dr Jens Berger, Lupin genetic resources and characterising environments
(jens.berger@csiro.au)

Mr Mick Poole, Farming Systems and Biofuels
(mick.poole@csiro.au)

Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA), University of Western Australia

Mr N Abbas, Quality aspects of fababeans

Mr C Beeck, Canola breeding and disease resistance

Ms M Campbell, Alternative oilseeds and biofuels
(mcc@cyllene.uwa.edu.au)

Dr John Clements, Research fellow, Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture
(clem@cyllene.uwa.edu.au)

Dr J Croser, Pulse pre-breeding, doubled haploids, embrio rescue and gene transfers
(jcroser@clima.uwa.edu.au)

Dr Harry Nesbitt, Pigeon pea project in East Timor
(h.nesbit@bigpond.net.au)

Mr J Quealy, Herbicide tolerance screening in lupins and pulses

Dr Debbie Thackray, Communication Coordinator
(djthack@clima.uwa.edu.au)

Prof Neil Turner, Director CLIMA
(ncturner@cyllene.uwa.edu.au)

Dr Julia Wilson, Interspecific lupin crosses, pearl lupins (L. mutabilis)
(jwilson@clima.uwa.edu.au)

Oilseeds WA

Mr John Duff, Executive Officer
(jd@consultag.com.au)

South Australia Research and Development Institute, Waite Plant Research Centre, University of Adelaide, South Australia

Dr Jeff Paull, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide
(j.paull@waite.adelaide.edu.au)

Dr Kevin Williams, Principal Scientist Biofuels, Waite Plant Research Centre
(williams.kevin@saugov.sa.gov.au)

Struan Research Centre, Primary Industries Southern Australia, Naracoorte, Southern Australia

Dr Trend Potter, Senior Researcher Oilseeds

Grains Innovation Park, Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria

Dr Wayne Burton, National Leader Canola Breeding Program, Victorian Department of Primary Industries, Horsham
(wayne.burton@dpi.vic.gov.au)

Prof David McNeil, State Wide Leader Grains Agronomy, Victorian Department of Primary Industries, Horsham
(david.mcneil@dpi.vic.gov.au)

Dr Rob Norton, Principal Lecturer (Agronomy), School of Agriculture and Food Systems, University of Melbourne
(rnorton@unimelb.edu.au)

Livestock production

Greg Hargreave, Manager, Baiada Poultry (Pty) Limited. P.O Box 21, Pendlehill, NSW, 2145, Australia
(hargreave@baiada.com.au)

Todd Middlebrook, Technical Services Manager, Weston Animal Nutrition, Sydney, NSW, Australia
(middlebrook@gwf.com.au)

Private agricultural consultant

Mr H Schoof, Grenache Nominees Pty, Ltd (Cell 0428 954 351)

Literature available at the PRF / Department of Agronomy, US

  1. CLIMA, Biennial Research Report, 2003-2004.
  2. Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA) – Serving the Legumes Industry – Progress towards a doubled haploid protocol in chickpea and field pea.
  3. CLIMA Biotechnology.
  4. Growing Western Canola: An overview of canola production in Western Australia.
  5. CBWA Boomer, Large Seeded, Ttop® canola.
  6. Canola Association of Australia (CAA), Blackleg resistance ratings.
  7. Canola Association of Australia (CAA), Australian Blackleg Management Guide, January 2005.
  8. Canola Association of Australia (CAA), Fungicide use for Blackleg control in canola, January 2005.
  9. Victoria Canola Yield Summary (2003-2005).
  10. Identification of False Wireworms and other soil dwelling pests of canola.
  11. Producing Lupins in Western Australia.
  12. Andromeda, Department of Agriculture, Government of Western Australia.
  13. Scientific article: Huaan Yang, Jeffery G. Boersma, Mingpei You, Bevan J. Buirchell and Mark W. Sweetingham (2004). Development and implementation of a sequence-specific PCR marker linked to a gene conferring resistance to anthracnose disease in narrow-leafed lupin (lupinus angustifolius L.).
    Molecular Breeding 14: 145-151, 2004.
  14. Scientific article: H.A. Yang and M.W. Sweetingham (1998). The taxonomy of Colletotrichum isolates associated with lupin anthracnose.
    Aust. J. Agric. Res., 1998, 49, 1213-1223.
  15. Grain Legumes, Issue No 43, September 2005. Food uses and health benefits of lupins.
  16. Interspecific hybridization for increasing lupin profitability.
  17. Scientific article: Huaan Yang, Mark W. Sweetingham, Wallac A. Cowling and Penelope M.C. Smith (2001). DNA fingerprinting based on micro satellite-anchored fragment length polymorphisms, and isolation of sequence-specific PCR markers in lupin (lupinus angustifolius L.)
    Molecular Breeding 7: 203-209, 2001.
  18. Scientific article: H. Yang, M. Shankar, B.J. Buirchell, M.W. Sweetingham, C. Caminero and P.M.C. Smith (2002). Development of molecular markers using MFLP linked to a gene conferring resistance to Diaporthe toxica in narrow-leafed lupin (lupinus angustifolius L.)
    Theor Appl Genet (2002) 105: 265-270
  19. Producing Pulses in the Southern Agricultural Region.
  20. SARDI Biofuels Research Program Biodiesel for the wheatbelt.
  21. South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI), Ascochyta Blight in chickpeas.
  22. Oilseeds WA.
  23. Cooking Pulses with DPI, Department of Primary Industries.
  24. Stock Feed Manufacturers' Council of Australia (SFMCA) + Australian Food Statistics, 2005.
  25. Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, Volume 10, Number 2, 2005.
  26. Scientific article: H.A. Yang and M.W. Sweetingham (1998). The taxonomy of Colletotrichum isolates associated with lupin anthracnose.
    Aust. J. Agric. Res., 1998, 49, 1213-1223.
  27. CRC for Plant-based Management of dryland Salinity, SP5, Using native perennial species in agriculture.
  28. Annual pasture legumes options, Department of Agriculture.
  29. Pulse tech-notes, Autumn 2006.
  30. Agriculture Notes, Septoria blotch of field peas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  31. Agriculture Notes, Phoma of chickpeas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  32. Agriculture Notes, Powdery mildew of field peas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  33. Agriculture Notes, Bacterial blight of field peas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  34. Agriculture Notes, Downy mildew of field peas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  35. Agriculture Notes, Sclerotinia of chickpeas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  36. Agriculture Notes, Ascochyta blight of field peas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  37. Agriculture Notes, Ascochyta blight of chickpeas, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.
  38. Pearl Lupin Fact sheet
    Jan Clements, Mark Sweetingham, DAFWA, Gordon Francic, NWA
  39. Nutritional Aspects of Pulses, GRDC.
  40. The crop variety sowing guide – 2005.
  41. Winter pulse disorders: The UTE Guide.
  42. Insects: The UTE Guide.
  43. CSIRO teams up with ARWA, Newsletter No. 10, July 2006.
  44. Rust of faba beans, Trevor Bretag and Mary Raynes, DPI Horsham (March 2004). State of Victoria, Department of Primary Industries.
  45. Faba bean disease management strategy for Southern Region GRDC 2002.
  46. Agriculture Notes, Ascochyta leaf and pod spot of faba beans, State of Victora, Department of Primary Industries.